Volume 1, No. 2
Special edition: Integration Discourses in the Media
Christine Horz & Carola Richter
Peer Reviewed Articles
Elisabeth Klaus & Ricarda Drüeke
More or less desirable citizens: Mediated Spaces of identity and cultural citizenship (article in English)
Beyond Sarrazin? Zur Darstellung von Migration in deutschen Medien am Beispiel der Berichterstattung in SPIEGEL und BILD (article in German)
Dennis Lichtenstein, Christiane Eilders und Julija Perlova
Integrationsprozesse in segmentierten Öffentlichkeiten. Die EU als Integrationschance für die Parallelgesellschaften in Lettland? (article in German)
Representation and Visibility. Roma in the Media (article in English)
Susan Schenk & Mohamed Ahmed
Does Al Jazeera make a difference? The framing of the Iranian election 2009 by Al Jazeera Arabic and CNN International (article in English)
“Produkt eines jahrzehntelangen Kommunikationsprozesses”
Interview mit Dr. Sabine Schiffer zu Migrationsdiskursen in den Medien (interview in German)
Mohan J. Dutta: Communicating Social Change: Structure, Culture and Agency (2011) (review in English)
Margrethttp://wp.areacore.org/2011/12/12/review-communicating-social-change-structure-culture-and-agencyh Lünenborg, Katharina Fritsche, Annika Bach: Migrantinnen in den Medien (2011) (review in German)
This second issue of the Global Media Journal (German Edition) is concerned with migration and integration discourses in the media. The call for papers for this issue has been launched under the impression of the massive public debate about the racist statements and newly published book of the then Bundesbank board member Thilo Sarrazin at the end of the year 2010. The media’s handling of his assumptions about migration and integration in Germany confronted us once more with a central question of communication and media studies, namely the interdependency between media coverage and social discourses in the context of migration. Of course, anti-migration discourses do not always lead to such terrifying attacks like those of the Norwegian assassin Anders Breivik or the German terror-network of Neonazis which has been discovered at the end of 2011. But media as publishing organs and social institutions are actors in the formation of cultural, political and social constructions of immigrants and minorities as „others“. This consideration marks the starting point for the authors of this special edition of GMJ which is opened by Elisabeth Klaus and Ricarda Drüeke (Salzburg). Their impressive case study documents the hierarchy of migrants as „desired“ and „undesired“ citizens in the Austrian press. The cited examples could be read as dependent media narratives to the Austrian migration policy. The subsequent article by Ulrike Irrgang (Erfurt) analyzes the images of Muslim migrants in the German weekly opinion leader DER SPIEGEL and the yellow-press daily BILD. She concludes that there is a polarizing media image of Muslims that oscillates between prominent personalities and Islamism/terrorism and as such narrows the space for presenting the wide range of Muslim lifestyles. Dennis Lichtenstein; Christiane Eilders and Julija Perlova (Duesseldorf, Hamburg) pose the question – based on the example of the Russian minority in Latvia – which role the mediated public sphere plays for identity formation in multi-ethnic states. How the exterritorial identity of the Roma minorities is reflected in the public spheres in Slovenia and Poland is subject of the fourth peer-reviewed article of Magdalena Ratajczak (Wroclaw). She refers to the European minority rights, that should secure the mediation of the own cultural heritage in the media – a challenging issue, because Romanes is an only orally used language. Outside this issue’s special focus, Susan Schenk and Mohammed Ahmed (Dresden, Cairo) examine the coverage of the post-election uprising in Iran 2009 in Al Jazeera Arabic und CNN International, based on a framing analysis. The interview of the editors in this GMJ-edition is reserved for Sabine Schiffer (Erlangen). The dialogue-partners are zooming out once more to the broader context of mediated migration and integration debates. Schiffer describes the construction of anti-Muslim resentments in the German media as the existing „foreigner-coverage“ in a new vestment. As such, it is an exclusion discourse grown for decades – with which the endangerment of democracy through the actual economic crisis can be concealed effectively, she argues. Finally, we review two recent books of interest for scholars dealing with international communication to complete this issue of the GMJ-DE. We wish you an enjoyable and interesting reading, Christine Horz & Carola Richter
Based on the concepts of cultural citizenship and media-constructed spaces of identity the article explores how issues of migration, residency and citizenship are discussed in the Austrian press. The authors are interested in two questions: Which spaces of identity does media create for migrants and locals? And which markers of citizenship are used in migration policies? The analysed articles stem from a national quality paper (Der Standard), a very influential boulevard paper (Kronen Zeitung) and one of the major regional newspapers (Salzburger Nachrichten). The analysis focuses on four case studies: Arigona Zogaj and her family were denied permanent residency after having spent many years in Austria. In the only terrorist trial in Austria to date, Mona S. was symbolically excluded from Austrian citizenship. The reporting in these cases is contrasted with those related to two persons in the attention of public interest– the famous opera singer Anna Netrebko and the actor Christoph Waltz –, who were granted citizenship rights on the grounds of exceptional cultural achievements in the interest of the Austrian nation. The media coverage shows that cultural dimensions of citizenship are used as important indicators for determining the entitlement to permanent residency and citizenship. Belonging to a nation is linked to cultural factors such as wearing the right clothes, behaving properly or speaking the language and having attended an Austrian school. Along these lines migrants are divided into two groups of good and bad foreigners, but issues of power and social hierarchies of gender, race and class are involved here as well. While this holds true for all three papers, the Boulevard press is adhering to an extremely personalized style, while the quality paper is linking the specific cases to the debate on migration policies and laws.
This paper examines how the German news magazine DER SPIEGEL and the daily BILD cover the issue of migration in Germany. As other studies in the early 1990s have shown, the debate in both print media was dominated by negative and polemic articles. The analysis conducted in this paper clarifies to what extent this also applies to the more recent news coverage. By using quantitative and qualitative content analysis, the paper tries to answer the following questions: What kind of actors and institutional players are involved in the covered debate? How is the phenomenon of migration framed politically, economically or culturally? In which way do both news media evaluate migration? The case study includes 30 articles of DER SPIEGEL and 54 articles of BILD; all of them were published in August and October 2010. At that time, Thilo Sarrazin released his book “Deutschland schafft sich ab” which focuses on Muslim immigration and revived the public debate on immigration and integration in Germany. The paper also examines, if this event has affected the news coverage.
The results show that the daily BILD still covers migration in a very unbalanced manner. Muslim immigrants are predominantly represented as a threat to the “German culture”. DER SPIEGEL covers the debate in a more differentiated way with articles written by migrants showing Muslims and migrants as part of the German society. However, there are also statements made by politicians as well as entire articles that only emphasise the economic benefit of migration and thereby objectify people with a migrant background. In both print media, the book release had an apparent effect on the coverage. This can be recognized by an increase of articles on migration in October 2010.
The paper examines the social integration process between the Latvian speaking majority and the Russian speaking minority in Latvia´s public discourse. We investigate whether or not the integration of Latvia into the EU may help to overcome the integration deficit between the two groups. Integration theory, public sphere research and identity research are addressed in order to develop an understanding for the conditions of social integration. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of newspapers of the Latvian and Russian community in Latvia. The period of investigation includes the European elections in 2004 and 2009. Results show that both groups share common issues, and identify with the Latvian State and the EU to a similar extent. Nevertheless, the groups show divergent trends over time. This indicates that an increase of integration is rather unlikely.
This article is divided into three main parts. The first is an overview of the situation of the Roma minorities in Slovenia and Poland. The second part of the article presents minority broadcast media and the main elements of the legal and institutional framework they operate in. Finally, this article focuses on the visibility of Roma in the media. This article draws attention to cultural pluralism and how cultural pluralism is implemented by the public service broadcasters in Poland and Slovenia, particularly in the context of the presence of Roma minorities in the media. The research is based on 15 interviews carried out in Slovenia and Poland between 2006-2009 with journalists, editors, researchers, workers of NGOs, government representatives and Roma minority leaders. This study is also based on policy documents, reports of governments, NGOs and international organisations, academic literature and content analysis of Roma minority media.
The election in Iran 2009 caused a serious crisis in Iranian society. The news media around the world reported about alleged manipulation, election fraud and other irregularities. “Where is my vote?” became the rallying cry of Iran’s opposition. This paper presents a cross-national comparative media analysis of news reporting on the Iranian election and the subsequent national and international reactions. It focuses on how a controversial political event was covered by two of the world´s leading television news broadcasters: Al Jazeera Arabic and CNN International, with a particular focus on Al Jazeera. Two theoretical frameworks were adopted: a contra-flow approach – Al Jazeera as an alternative source of news – as well as its role with respect to democratization. Two flagship news programs were analyzed over a six-week period in summer 2009. With quantitative framing analysis as the central methodology (using statistical factor analysis), we focused on the content of 66 television news stories.
GMJ: Seit etlichen Jahren wird von der Forschung das Problem stereotyper Darstellungen von MigrantInnen in den Medien beklagt. Hat sich in den deutschen Mainstream-Medien aufgrund dieser Debatte etwas verändert? Wenn ja, was und wie lässt sich das festmachen? Dr. Sabine Schiffer: Wenn überhaupt, dann hat sich zu wenig geändert. Die Angebote sind ein bisschen bunter geworden – mit nicht ganz so deutsch klingenden Moderatorennamen im Morgenmagazin bei ARD und ZDF zum Beispiel. Aber …