Volume 3, No. 2
Autumn / Winter 2013
Akademische Artikel / Peer Reviewed Articles
More than a belated Gutenberg Age: Daily Newspapers in India. An Overview of the Print Media Development since the 1980s, Key Issues and Current Perspectives (article in English)
Citizens’ Radio in North Africa and the Middle East: Meaningful Change through Citizen Empowerment? – An Experience from Tunis (article in English)
Von despotischen Türken und kaltherzigen Deutschen. Zur Inszenierung und Destruktion kultureller Stereotype in der Komödie (article in German)
Essays / Essays
New Trends of Social Media Use in Iran: Candidates’ Campaigns on Social Networks in the 2013 Presidential Election (article in English)
Zwischen Information und Mission. Journalisten in Afghanistan: Berufliche Einstellungen und Leistungen (article in German)
Buchrezensionen / Book Reviews
Oren, Tasha; Shahaf, Sharon (2012): Global Television Formats. Understanding Television Across Borders (review in English)
Michaelsen, Marcus (2013): Wir sind die Medien. Internet und politischer Wandel in Iran (review in German)
Sturmer, Martin (2013): Afrika! Plädoyer für eine differenzierte Berichterstattung (review in German)
Global Media Journal
While TV may still be the dominant medium in India today, and the internet and mobile phone industry are currently growing at a tremendous speed, ‘old’ media such as the press don’t seem to be losing ground as yet. In times of a recurrent debate about the crisis of print media in Europe and the US, the Indian newspaper market still keeps growing and has attracted the interest of multinational corporations. One reason for this is that India is presently one of the largest markets for English-language newspapers and magazines in the world. Notwithstanding the continued growth of the English-language press, it is above all daily newspapers in the Major Indian languages which form the motor of this unprecedented press boom. The article shows that in the wake of economic liberalization and the enforcement of the consumption-oriented market economy, the newspaper market in India can be said to be changing from a linguistically ‘split public’, which was characterized by many asymmetries for decades, to an integrated multilingual ‘consumer sphere’. It can thus be argued that in this new consumer sphere, the old existing and imaginary boundaries between ‘English-language’, ‘Indian-language’ or ‘regional newspapers’ are becoming increasingly fuzzy, whereas the new geographies of the ‘regional’ are now very important for the expansion and consolidation of daily newspapers. In order to de-westernize the current debate about the ‘newspaper crisis’, it would thus be important to look at different historical as well as contemporary trajectories of newspaper developments in the framework of changing media configurations in the so-called global South, which may differ significantly from the European or North American context.
Fostering a participatory political culture is a crucial part of the on-going transformation processes which we witness across North African and Middle Eastern countries since 2011. This paper considers which role participatory communication plays in these processes, by examining the potential of citizens’ radios to accompany Tunisia’s transition at a grassroots level. Analysing the case of Radio 6 Tunis – a local, non-commercial Internet-radio founded by Tunisian journalists under the rule of Ben Ali in 2007 – citizens’ radios are discussed as sites of political contestation and cultivation of critical consciousness. While they empower citizens to reclaim both their voice and public space, their influence is however limited. The manifold challenges which citizens‘ radios face in the transitional context of post-autocratic Tunisia, may well impede nascent democratisation dynamics.
This paper focuses on the cinematic representation of Turkish migrants and Germans in the two comedies Vatanyolu – Die Heimreise (1988) and Almanya – Willkommen in Deutschland (2011). In former movies Turkish characters were portrayed as the patriarchalic husband or father and the oppressed wife. The German society was represented as modern and civilised. The paper seeks to clarify the following questions: In which way are „the Germans“ and „the Turks“ characterized in Vatanyolu and Almanya? Is it possible to undermine stereotype representations by the use of humour? To answer these questions, firstly, the author shortly introduces the concepts of culture and cultural identity this article is based on. Then theoretical remarks on stereotypes are discussed as well as the potential of humour to subvert stereotypical representations. The analysis of the movie characters in Vatanyolu and Almanya shows that the filmmakers still use typical images of Turks and Germans. Although the family members in Vatanyolu are heterogeneous, the stereotypical representations can only be transcended in some cases. The characters in Almanya are more complex and multilayered, so the boundaries between „Turkish“ and „German“ disappear. In both movies stereotypes serve as basis for humour. Especially in Vatanyolu the commonly known images are simply reproduced by the filmmakers. However, in Almanya some jokes work against stereotypes by revealing their structure and logic.
On June 14th, 2013, Iranians headed to the polls to cast their votes for the country’s next president. The unexpected turnout, that followed months of debates between those who wanted to go back to ballot boxes and those who did not, resulted in the election of Hasan Rouhani, the moderate cleric. About three months after the election, in his interview with NBC NEWS, Mr. Rouhani explained social networks’ role in his victory as undeniable and appreciated his supporters for promoting his campaign on these platforms. This commentary reviews Rouhani’s and the other state candidates’ use of formally blocked social networks during the recent presidential election in Iran, as a very recent shift toward planned and targeted use of social media by the government.
In diesem Beitrag werden der Journalismus und insbesondere die beruflichen Einstellungen und Leistungen von Journalisten und Journalistinnen in Afghanistan untersucht. Diese Studie ist bisher die erste umfassende empirische Studie, die sich des aktuellen afghanischen Journalismus annimmt. Sie wurde auf der Grundlage einer der neuesten theoretischen Konzepte der Kommunikationswissenschaft vorgenommen und darauf basierend wurde ein mehrdimensionales empirisches Analyse-Modell entwickelt, um die Gegebenheiten zu untersuchen. Die Ermittlung der beruflichen Einstellungen geschah mittels eine vollstandardisierten Befragung, an der 195 Journalisten in Afghanistan teilnahmen. Eine Inhaltsanalyse in den drei wichtigsten afghanischen Zeitungen erbrachte eine Zusammen-stellung der Leistungen von Journalisten. Der wichtigste Befund lautet, dass die befragten Journalisten ein berufliches Rollenselbstverständnis im Sinne des Informationsjournalismus haben. Auch hinsichtlich der journalistischen Berichterstattungsmuster nahm der Informations-journalismus eine dominante Position ein. Aus dieser Dominanz ist zu schließen, dass dieses ermittelte berufliche Rollenselbstverständnis für Journalisten Priorität besitzt und in die Berichterstattung diffundiert. Als zweitwichtigstes Kommunikationsziel gaben die Befragten den missionarischen Journalismus an. Dies ist der Tatsache geschuldet, dass in Afghanistan Religion (Islam) und Tradition die wichtigsten gesellschaftlichen „Identitäts- und Handlungsfaktoren“ bilden.